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Robert Beck - Do it yourself Elektromedizin - Brain Tuner CES
Robert Becks Brain Tuner für Craniale Elektrotherapie Stimulation CES (englisch)
•  bei Ängsten, Depression, Schlaflosigkeit, Sucht 1983,1995 (englisch)
•  Anleitung (englisch)
•  Schaltbild Brain Synchronizer mit Stückliste
•  Spektrum BT5, BT5pro
•  Bio-Tuner BT7 Modes, Specs und Wellenform
•  Literatur/Bücher zu CES
Geschichte CES-Technologie und Entwicklung Brain Tuner 1983 (englisch)
•  Videos
•  Neuro Electric Therapie NET Margaret Pattersons black box
•  Drogenentzug mit Neuro Electric Therapie NET
•  suchterzeugende Medikamente, Tabak, Elektroschlaf, elektrischer Entzug
•  Recherche
•  nützliche Frequenzen, Verjüngung, Regeneration
•  frühe Arbeiten
•  Anwendung Brain Tuner, 200 Frequenzen
•  Erfolgsgeschichten
•  TENS-Geräte, Mora
siehe auch: Beck Beck Vortragsmaterial Beck Interviews Elektromedizin

Beck Brain Tuner for Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES)

There are several types of brain tuners commercially available. Just use a search engine to look them up. Also have a look at Bob Becks lecture about the Brain Tuner and the buyer comments on the Amazon page selling such devices.

I have not tried to make or use a device of this type, so I cannot personally comment as to the effectiveness/safety of this device. One user of this device had the following to say:

  The brain synchronizer destresses, relaxes but also clears the mind.
  People also use it to break addictions and depression. It's really
  incredible. I use mine everyday and it keeps me out of the chronic
  depression I used to suffer.

Please be aware if you want selling devices:

  Builders of this device should be aware that if they make and sell CES
  units to others in the USA that they will be in legal jeopardy because the
  other official CES companies will turn them in to the FDA. Currently one
  must be FDA approved as a CES manufacturer in the USA in order to be within
  the limits of the law.

Excerpt from:
FOCUS on ALCOHOL and DRUG ISSUES, Jan/Feb 1983
Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES)

Help for ANXIETY

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation has been used as a treatment for anxiety in several parts of the world for over a quarter of a century. American medicine has only recently begun to realize its use as a safe and effective treatment.

Studies show that CES treatment yields highly significant reductions in anxiety, whether the patients were in a psychiatric setting, a scholastic setting, an outpatient setting, or an in-patient general hospital setting. Further, while many different kinds of anxiety have been studied, as measured by the six different psychological measuring instruments found in these studies, they all responded significantly to CES treatment. Less intense or less permanent forms of anxiety - the so-called "situational anxiety" in which a person habitually responds to personally threatening events in his environment with an anxiety reaction - respond to CES treatments within a week or less. The more permanent forms of anxiety - the so-called trait anxiety, or that underlying level of anxiety that a person typically carries with him at all times - require a longer period of CES treatment. This kind of anxiety typically is not reduced significantly in fewer than 2 or 3 weeks of daily treatments.

Help for DEPRESSION

Studies show that reactive depression (that which results from acute changes in the patients life situation such as a job change or divorce) is decreased after 6 days of CES treatment.

More deep seated depression (endogenous) in some cases required 3 or more weeks of daily treatment. For this reason, many physicians routinely prescribe a minimum of 2 weeks to a month of daily CES treatments in depressed patients, since it is frequently difficult to gauge the type or depth of depression with great accuracy. Since many patients have a "depression habit" physicians should include a home CES unit in their treatment plan so that the patient can meet any new sign of impending depression with effective treatment and thereby break the behavioral reinforcement chain that has both led to and maintained the habit. In this way, a maladaptive habit can be effectively controlled or broken without the use of frequent medications and/or repeated visits to the physician. Other research has shown that CES, when used this way is neither habit forming nor addictive. Such patients use it only when they experience an impending medical necessity.

Help for INSOMNIA

Because CES was originally called "Electrosleep" in European countries, many earlier American studies were designed to learn whether or not such small amounts of electric currents would actually put people to sleep. That is, just as 50ma of current - called "electro-anaesthesia" - put an individual into anesthesia so that surgical procedures could be performed, 1ma of CES current was assumed to put them into a normal state of sleep if "Electrosleep" worked. Such studies discovered that while CES does not necessarily "put a person to sleep", it does accomplish some very therapeutic changes in the sleep patterns of people who complain of insomnia.

The studies below show that whether measured by the patient's own ratings, psychiatrists ratings or by electroencephalograph or polygraph recordings before and after CES treatments, the following effects of CES in insomnia can be expected:

  1. Sleep onset latency is reduced. That is, once a person has retired for the evening, the amount of time it takes him to actually fall asleep is reduced from one to two hours or more to the more normal twenty minutes or less.
  2. The number of awakenings during the night are reduced. That is, while most insomniacs awaken three or more times during the night and have difficulty falling asleep again, those treated with CES typically awaken no more than once or twice following therapy, with most reporting no awakenings. Furthermore, after awakening, they return to sleep much more promptly than before.
  3. CES treated patients spend more time in stage four sleep following CES treatments. That is, patients spend more time in the deepest, most restful stage of sleep than they did prior to CES treatment. It should be noted that some patients who have deprived themselves of REM sleep - the stage during which dreaming occurs - by taking drugs or alcohol as a sleeping aid, sometimes spend the first two or three nights in unusually vivid dream states when first starting CES treatments. This is considered another indication of the therapeutic effectiveness of CES in that persons are known to become increasingly disorganized mentally, some even to the point of psychotic-like symptoms, when they do not engage in the normal amount of dreaming.
  4. Finally, it was discovered that many patients receiving CES treatments report feeling more rested when they awaken in the morning following CES treatments.

Treatment parameters: While some patients begin to respond after the second or third day of treatment, others do not have their best response with fewer than 24 days of treatments lasting from 15 minutes to 1 hour. The beneficial effects have been measured in some experimental groups for as long as two years. Some people with insomnia have a habitual pattern of responding to situational stress with an interruption in their sleep patterns. The best results are obtained when CES is used each time unusual stressors occur in their life situations that would ordinarily cause poor sleep. The CES device user is thereby trained over time to expect a good night's sleep no matter what stressful interruptions occurred in the normal flow of daily life.

Help for ADDICTIONS

Foremost among the treatment problems among chemically dependent persons is the need to help them through the psychologically and physically demanding period of withdrawal. The body reacts to the depressed physical state engendered by alcohol and other drugs with a rebound stress reaction. This reaction commonly includes states of extreme anxiety, depression, and insomnia, for which CES treatment is known to be effective.

Underlying the addictive state is an insidious and progressive destruction of normal brain functioning including an often incapacitating memory loss, inability to process information involving abstract symbols, and other dysfunctions associated with the organic brain syndrome, and advanced condition which is known as Korsakoff psychosis. Studies on the use of CES in chemical dependencies are among the best controlled and well designed research in the U.S. They indicate that CES is a highly effective adjunct to methadone withdrawal in heroin addicts, significantly shortening the time to symptom-free withdrawal when compared with methadone alone, and significantly lowering withdrawal anxiety as measured by the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale.

Further, the anxiety and depression accompanying and following withdrawal of both alcohol and other drugs in polydrug abusers is significantly reduced when patients receive CES as a post withdrawal treatment.

Most importantly, perhaps, is the finding that CES treatment halts and significantly reverses brain dysfunction in these patients as measured on seven different psychological scales of cognitive function, bringing many such functions back to the level of the pre-addiction state in the majority of patients studied. Another problem in the treatment of chemically dependent persons is frequently recurring "dry withdrawal" in which the individual suffers withdrawal symptoms within several weeks, then again in several months. The phrases used to describe these phenomena are a "dry drunk" followed by the "dry withdrawal".

These psychological states lead to high recidivism rates among these individuals as they return to treatment after "falling off the wagon". CES is now thought of as one of the most effective, non-drug treatments for these periods of withdrawal, and a patient who has a personal CES unit available should be able to use it to prevent a full-blown withdrawal reaction at such times. By doing so he can reduce the need for additional medical treatment in a clinic or hospital setting, and will be less likely to resort to alcohol because of the discomfort accompanying these withdrawal states.

Excerpt from:
SPECTRUM THE WHOLISTIC NEWS MAGAZINE, Jan/Feb 1995

Shocking treatment for TROUBLED MINDS

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) has been proved to be an effective, non pharmacological, non toxic therapy for anxiety, depression and insomnia. It works by delivering a soothing, low voltage electrical stimulation to the brain 45 minutes a day via a Sony Walkman type headset resting on both ears. Patients can use CES at home while engaging in other activities, except, of course, for driving or other possibly dangerous activities.

Side effects are negligible - users might experience an occasional transitory feeling of light headedness or a mild headache if the unit is turned up too high.

Several scientific studies support the effectiveness and safety of CES. In six separate placebo controlled studies of anxiety, 220 hospitalized psychiatric inpatients receiving the treatment for at least 30 minutes per day for three weeks showed a significant lessening of anxiety; compared to controls. Similar studies with depressed patients revealed an average reduction in depression scores of 50%.

CES is thought to act by correcting neurotransmitter imbalances. Scientists discovered that severely depressed patients receiving CES had increased serotonin and norepinephrine blood levels, and normalized serotonin/betaendorphin and norepinephrine/cholinesterase ratios.

Because CES duplicates the biochemical changes of drugs like antidepressants, it usually takes one to four weeks for the therapeutic effect to take hold. Potential applications for CES treatment include addictions, phobias, panic disorder, attention deficit disorder, and cognitive dysfunction. It has also been found quite effective for tension headaches.
(Based on facts presented in: Bridges ISSSEEM Newsmagazine, Winter 1993)

Brain Tuner Instructions

Bio

Frequency of Usage

For severe problems use it 40 minutes twice daily. For less than severe problems use it 30-40 minutes once daily, then after a month you can use it 2 or 3 times a week. (It has cumulative effects.) More than 40 minutes usage in one sitting can have less productive results.

Selecting 6 hz Option

6 hz (cycles per second) enhances Theta brain waves which are normally experienced between sleep and full alertness. If you are stressed, anxious, hyper, or are preparing for bed then flip the switch upwards towards the 6 hz sticker. If you just woke up or want to be more alert then flip the switch down away from the 6 hz sticker.

Using Ear Clip Electrodes

Pull open both ear clips and wet thoroughly with saltwater. Wipe your ear lobes clean because dirt or oil can cause stinging sensations when using unit. Clip them onto your ear lobes before turning the unit on. The saltwater usually dries out after 45 minutes (and stops conducting electric current) which is good because then you don't have to watch the clock too closely. Turn unit off before handling electrodes to prevent electrical tingling of your fingers.

Setting Current Control Knob

Before turning unit on, turn the dial fully counterclockwise. Turn unit on, wait for any initial tingling to subside, and then slowly turn the dial clockwise until you get uncomfortable tingling and then turn it back counterclockwise into the comfort zone. The farther clockwise it is turned, the more electric current you're receiving (and the more the current LED will light up). Too much current can result in dizziness. When you first start using it you may have uncomfortable sensations even with it turned fully counterclockwise. This usually subsides quickly and then you can turn it up. If it don't subside then you can adjust the electronics to suit you by turning the unit off, removing the 4 bottom screws, pulling out the electronics board, and with a mini-screwdriver turn the center of the potentiometer marked "<-adjust" counterclockwise (while the unit is on and connected to you) until you are comfortable with the diminished sensation felt. This is a last resort though because too little current may result in less benefits.

Using AC Adapter

This unit is powered by an internal rechargeable battery that will need recharging when you can't feel any tingling with the control fully clockwise. To recharge the battery just turn the unit off and plug the AC adapter into the AC wall socket and into the power jack on the unit. It will automatically recharge like that. Let it recharge overnight or 14 hours for a maximum charge. Too much charging may shorten the batteries life span. Next morning it is ready to use for at least another 4 hours total. Don't connect the AC adapter to the unit except when recharging. If the unit ever gets to where it won't last long between charges then you can replace the internal 9v battery with Radio Shack's 9 volt rechargeable #23-299. Recharge after replacing battery.

Caring for Electrodes

Handle electrodes carefully so as not to bend the wires where they connect to the electrodes. If this connection ever breaks then you can remove the cloth and solder the wire back in place. If cloth gets too dirty then you can replace it by removing it, cutting a piece of 100% cloth the same size, and re-stitching it back in place.

Making Saltwater

Mix 3 tsp non-iodized sea salt or rock salt with 2 ounce distilled water. Stir and let sit for 3 hours. Store in a dark eyedropper bottle. Stir 1 drop of this salt solution into 4 oz distilled water and use to fill an eyedropper bottle for use on the electrodes.

Brain Synchronizer Schematic

Schematic

Parts List

Qty     Mouser                  #              cost    Backup
  1     project box             400-1542       3.70    RS:  270-231    2.32
  1     9v rechargeable battery 573-15F8K      7.99    
  1     9v battery clip         12BC160         .54     
  1     output transformer      42TM006        2.41    
  1     C555 timer IC           511-TS555CN     .46     
  1     C556 timer IC           511-TS556CN     .62     
  1     8 pin IC socket         571-26404633    .11     
  1     14 pin IC socket        571-26403573    .13     
  1     100K pot                31VA501        1.25    
  1     pot knob                450-2070        .99     
  1     25K mini pot            569-72PM-25K    .99     
  2     3.5mm female jack       16PJ137         .52     
  2     3.5mm male plug         17PP103         .86     
  1     12v 200ma Adaptor       412-1101       4.90    
  1     470uf capacitor         140-XRL10V470   .18     
  1     1uf capacitor           540-1.0M35      .33     
  1     .22uf capacitor         540-0.22M35     .33     
  1     .0047uf capacitor       581-UEC472J1    .62     
  1     120K resistor           30B-J250-120K   .22     
  2     22K resistor            30B-J250-22K    .44     
  2     4.7K resistor           30B-J250-4.7K   .44     
  1     1K resistor             30B-J250-1K     .44     
  1     1.3K resistor           30B-J250-1.3K   .44     
  1     680 ohm resistor 1/2W   30B-J500-680    .22     
1.5"    1/16" shrink tubing, 4' 5174-11162      4'/.78

Qty     Radio Shack #                          cost
  2     2ma LED                 276-044        2.12
  1     PC board                276-150         .64
 3.5'   24ga speaker wire       278-1301        .27

Qty     JDR                     #              cost
  1     SPDT switch             SP/DT          1.25    
  1     SPDT-CO switch          SW22           1.29    
  1     1.5M resistor           R1.5M           .05     
  1     18K resistor            R18K            .05     
  2     10K resistor            R10K            .10     
  2     2.2K resistor           R2.2K           .10     
  1     50K mini pot            72PR50K         .79     
  1     10K mini pot            72PR10K         .79     
  1     1K mini pot             72PR1.0K        .79     
  2     2907 transistor         2N2907A         .29     
  2     3904 transistor         2N3904          .10     
  4     1N4148 diode            1N4148          .04     
  1     1N4001 diode            1N4001          .06     
  4     rubber feet             3M5012-BL      100/6.95        
 3.5'   24ga single wire        WIRE-24YSR100  100'/3.95

2  ear clips from Beads N Beyond part #125      $.25ea 
(sew 100% cotton cloth on them. Wet with saltwater before using)

Beads N Beyond: 1-704-254-7927
35 Wall St
Asheville NC 28801

Mouser Electronics: 1-800-346-6873
958 N Main St
Mansfield TX 76063-4827

JDR Microdevices: 1-800-538-5000
1850 South 10th St
San Jose, CA 95112-9941

Spectrum Analysis

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the original BT5

Beck Brain Tuner fft

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the improved BT5pro

Beck Brain Tuner fft

Bio-Tuner BT7

SOTA Instruments Inc. has completely re-designed the BT6Pro model of Bio-Tuner, which is now called the BT7 (professional edition of the BT6).

The Bio-Tuner BT7 offers 6 user-selectable output modes that research shows have varying effects. In all modes the base frequency of 1,000 Hz pulse-modulated by 111.11 Hz is present. This is the "magic frequency" that was found to work where other's failed.

MODE 1-3 (550uS pulse width) MODE 4-6 (220uS pulse width)
Mode 1
1kHz modulated by 111.11 Hz, 550us Pulse Width
Output=Continuous
Mode 4
1kHz modulated by 111.11 Hz, 220us Pulse Width
Output=Continuous
Mode 2
1kHz modulated by 111.11 Hz, 550us Pulse Width
Output=1 Second ON, 1 Second OFF
Mode 2
1kHz modulated by 111.11 Hz, 220us Pulse Width
Output=1 Second ON, 1 Second OFF
Mode 3
1kHz modulated by 111.11 Hz, 550us Pulse Width
Output=Ampl. Modulated by 7.83Hz Sine Wave
Mode 3
1kHz modulated by 111.11 Hz, 220us Pulse Width
Output=Ampl. Modulated by 7.83Hz Sine Wave

Other Functions

Electrical Specs

Waveform

Beck Brain Tuner Signal Waveform

Beck's Bibliography of Cranial Electrical Stimulation Research

This bibliography is not specific to the Beck Brain Tuner. The research is specific to Cranial Electrical Stimulation - the technology on which the Brain Tuner is based.

  1. Achte, Kauko, Seppala: "On electrosleep therapy" Psychiatric Quarterly 42,1 17-27 1968
  2. Astrup: "A follow-up study of electrosleep" Biol Psychiatry 8,1 115-117 2.1974
  3. Barabasz: "Treatment of insomnia in depressed patients by hypnosis and cerebral electrotherapy" Am J Clin Hypn 19,2 120-122 10.1976
  4. Brand: "Electrosleep therapy for migraine and headache" in Wageneder, Schuy: "Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia" Proc 2. Int Symposium Graz, Austria 1969
  5. Braverman, Smith, Smayda, Blum: "Modification of P300 amplitude and other electrophysiological parameters of drug abuse by cranial electrical stimulation" Curr Ther Res 48 586-596 10.1990
  6. Briones, Rosenthal: "Changes in urinary free catecholamines and 17-ketosteroids with cerebral electrotherapy (electrosleep)" Dis Nerv Syst 34,1 57-58 1.1973
  7. Brown: "Electroanesthesia and electrosleep" Am Psychol 30,3 402-410 3.1975
  8. Cartwright, Weiss: "The effects of electrosleep on insomnia revisited" J Nerv Ment Dis 161,2 134-137 8.1975
  9. Childs: "New treatments offer hope for agitated brain syndrome" The Psychiatric Times 9.1988
  10. Childs, Crismon: "The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in post-traumatic amnesia: a report of two cases" Brain Inj 2,3 243-247 1988
  11. "Correspondence: Polarization in depression" Br J Psychiatry 117 474 10.1970
  12. "Correspondence: Polarization therapy in depressive illnesses" Br J Psychiatry 111 447-448 5.1965
  13. Costain, Redfearn, Lippold: "A controlled trial of the therapeutic effects of polarization of the brain in depressive illness" Br J Psychiatry 110 786-799 11.1964
  14. Coursey, Frankel, Gaarder, Mott: "A comparison of relaxation techniques with electrosleep therapy for chronic, sleep-onset insomnia a sleep-EEG study" Biofeedback Self Regul 5,1 57-73 3.1980
  15. Coursey, Frankel, Gaarder: "EMG biofeedback and autogenic training as relaxation techniques for chronic sleep onset insomnia" Biofeedback and Self Regulation 1 353-354 9.1976
  16. Cox, Heath: "Neurotone therapy: a preliminary report of its effect on electrical activity of forebrain structures" Dis Nerv Syst 36,5 245-247 5.1975
  17. Dymond, Coger, Serafetinides: "Intracerebral current levels in man during electrosleep therapy" Biol Psychiatry 10,1 101-104 2.1975
  18. Empson: "Clinical note. Does electrosleep induce natural sleep?" Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 35,6 663-664 12.1973
  19. England: "Treatment of migraine headache utilizing cerebral electrostimulation" Master of Science Thesis, North Texas State University, Denton, Texas 12.1976
  20. Feighner, Brown, Olivier: "Electrosleep therapy. A controlled double blind study" J Nerv Ment Dis 157,2 121-128 8.1973
  21. Flemenbaum: "Cerebral electrotherapy (electrosleep): an open-clinical study with a six month follow-up" Psychosomatics 15,1 20-24 1974
  22. Flemenbaum: "Cerebral electrotherapy (electrosleep): a review" Curr Psychiatr Ther 15 195-202 1975
  23. Forster, Post, Benton: "Preliminary observations on electrosleep" Arch Phys Med Rehabil 44 481-489 9.1963
  24. Forster, Shapiro, Fine, Feldman, Berner, Goldberg: "Continued investigations of electrosleep" in Wageneder, Schuy: "Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia" Proc 1. Int Symposium. Graz, Austria 12.-17.9.1966
  25. Frankel: "Research on cerebral electrotherapy (electrosleep): some suggestions" Am J Psychiatry 131,1 95-98 1.1974
  26. Frankel, Buchbinder, Snyder: "Ineffectiveness of electrosleep in chronic primary insomnia" Arch Gen Psychiatry 29,4 563-568 10.1973
  27. Frankel, Buchbinder, Snyder: "The effect of cerebral electrotherapy on the sleep of chronic insomniacs" in Wageneder, Schuy: "Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia" Proc 3. Int Symposium. Varna, Bulgaria. 9.1972
  28. Gershman, Clouser: "Treating insomnia with relaxation and desensitization in a group setting by an automated approach" J Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 5,1 31-35 7.1974
  29. Gibson, O'Hair: "Cranial application of low-level trans cranial electrotherapy vs. relaxation instructions in anxious patients" Am J Electromedicine 4,1 18-21 1987
  30. Glazer, Ashkenazi, Magora: "Electrosleep therapy in bronchial asthma" Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 36,1 163-171 1969
  31. Gomez, Mikhail: "Treatment of methadone withdrawal with cerebral electrotherapy (electrosleep)" Br J Psychiatry 134 111-113 1.1979
  32. Hearst, Cloninger, Crews, Cadoret: "Electrosleep therapy: a double-blind trial" Arch Gen Psychiatry 30,4 463-466 4.1974
  33. Itil, Gannon, Akpinar, Hsu: "Quantitative EEG analysis of electrosleep using analog frequency analyzer and digital computer methods" Dis Nerv Syst 33,6 376-381 6.1972
  34. Jarzembski: "Electrical stimulation and substance abuse treatment" Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 7,2 119-123 1985
  35. Kelley, Kelley, Kaiman: "Cerebral electric stimulation with thermal biomedical feedback" Nebr Med J 62,9 322-327 9.1977
  36. Koegler, Hicks, Barger: "Medical and psychiatric use of electrosleep. Transcerebral electrotherapy" Dis Nerv Syst 32,2 100-104 2.1971
  37. Koegler: "Predicting the results of electrosleep therapy" in Wageneder, Schuy: "Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia" III. 3. Int Symposium in Varna, Bulgaria 9.1972
  38. Kotter, Henschel, Hogan, Kalbfleisch: "Inhibition of gastric acid secretion in man by the transcranial application of lwo intensity pulsed current" Gastroenterology 69,2 359-363 8.1975
  39. Levitt, James, Flavell: "A clinical trial of electrosleep therapy with a psychiatric inpatient sample" Aust N Z J Psychiatry 9,4 287-290 12.1975
  40. Lewis: "Electrosleep sleep therapy" in Williams, Webb: "Sleep therapy: A bibliography and commentary" chap 3 26-39 Thomas, Publ., Springfield, Ill. 1966
  41. Madden, Kirsch: "Low intensity transcranial electrostimulation improves human learning of a psychomotor task" Am J Electromedicine 2,2-3 41-45 Second Quarter 1987
  42. Magora, Assael, Ashkenazi: "Some aspects of electrical sleep and its therapeutic values" in Wageneder, Schuy: "Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia" Proc 1. Int Symposium. Graz, Austria, 12.-17.9.1966
  43. Magora, Beller, Aladjemoff, Tannenbaum: "Observations on electrically induced sleep in man" Br J Anaesth 37,7 480-491 1965
  44. Marshall, Izard: "Cerebral electrotherapeutic treatment of depressions" J Consult Clin Psychol 42,1 93-97 2.1974
  45. McKenzie, Rosenthat, Driessner: "Some psychophysiologic effects of transcranial stimulation (electro-sleep) in Wulfsohn, Sances: "The Nervous System and Electric Currents" Plenum Press, New York 163-167 1976
  46. McKenzie, Costello, Buck: "Electrosleep (electrical transcranial stimulation) in the treatment of anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance in chronic alcoholics" J Altered States of Consciousness 2,2 185-195 1975-1976
  47. Miller, Mathas: "The use and effectiveness of electrosleep in the treatment of some common psychiatric problems" Am J Psychiatry 122,4 460-462 10.1965
  48. Montgomery, Perkin, Wise: "A review of behavioral treatments for insomnia" J Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 6,2 93-100 8.1975
  49. Moore, Mellor, Standage, Strong: "A double blind study of electrosleep for anxiety and insomnia" Biol Psychiatry 10,1 59-63 2.1975
  50. Nias, Shapiro: "The effects of small electrical currents upon depressive symptoms" Br J Psychiatry 125,0 414-415 10.1974
  51. Nias: "Therapeutic effects of low level direct electrical currents" Psychological Bulletin 83,5 766-773 9.1976
  52. Obrosow: "Electrosleep therapy" in Stillwell: "Therapeutic Electricity and Ultraviolet Radiation, second edition" Kap 5 179-187 1967
  53. Passini, Watson, Herder: "The effects of cerebral electric therapy (electrosleep) on anxiety, depression, and hostility in psychiatric patients" J Nerv Ment Dis 163,4 263-266 10.1976
  54. Patterson: "The significance of current frequency in neuro electric therapy (NET) for drug and alcohol addictions" in Wageneder, Schuy: "Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia" 5 5. Int Symposium in Graz, Austria 1978
  55. Philip, Demotes-Mainard, Bourgeois, Vincent: "Efficiency of transcranial electrostimulation on anxiety and insomnia symptoms during a washout period in depressed patients. A double-blind study" Biol Psychiatry 29,5 451-456 1.3.1991
  56. Pleitez: "New frontier: electrosleep therapy" Nebr Med J 58,1 9-11 1.1973
  57. Ramsay, Schlagenhauf: "Treatment of depression with low voltage direct current" South Med J 59,8 932-934 8.1966
  58. Rosenthal, Wulfsohn: "Electrosleep - A clinical trial" Am J Psychiatry 127,4 533-534 10.1970
  59. Rosenthal, Wulfsohn: "Electrosleep. A preliminary communication" J Nerv Ment Dis 151,2 146-151 8.1970
  60. Rosenthal, Wulfsohn: "Studies of electrosleep with active and simulated treatment" Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 12,3 126-130 3.1970
  61. Rosenthal: "A qualitative description of the electrosleep experience" in Wulfsohn, Sances: "The Nervous System and Electric Currents" 2 Plenum Press, New York 1971
  62. Rosenthal: "Electrosleep therapy" Current Psychiatric Therapies 12 104-107 1972
  63. Rosenthal: "Electrosleep: a double-blind clinical study" Biol Psychiatry 4 179-185 4.1972
  64. Rosenthal, Calvert: "Electrosleep: personal subjective experiences" Biol Psychiatry 4,2 187-190 1972
  65. Rosenthal: "Alterations in serum thyroxine with cerebral electrotherapy (electrosleep)" Arch Gen Psychiatry 28,1 28-29 1.1973
  66. Rosenthal, Briones: "Hormonal studies in cerebral electrotherapy" in Wageneder, Schuy: "Electrotherapeutic Sleep and Electroanesthesia" III 3. Int Symposium in Varna, Bulgaria 9.1972
  67. Ryan, Souheaver: "Effects of transcerebral electrotherapy (electrosleep) on state anxiety according to suggestibility levels" Biol Psychiatry 11 233-237 1976
  68. Ryan, Souheaver: "The role of sleep in electrosleep therapy for anxiety" Dis Nerv Syst 38,7 515-517 7.1977
  69. Scallet, Cloninger, Othmer: "The management of chronic hysteria: a review and double blind trial of electrosleep and other relaxation methods" Dis Nerv Syst 37,6 347-353 6.1976
  70. Schmitt, Capo, Frazier, Boren: "Cranial electrotherapy stimulation treatment of cognitive brain dysfunction in chemical dependence" J Clin Psychiatry 45,2 60-63 2.1984
  71. Schmitt, Capo, Boyd: "Cranial electrotherapy stimulation as a treatment for anxiety in chemically dependent persons" Alcohol Clin Exp Res 10,2 158-160 1986
  72. Singh, King, Super: "Effects of transcerebral electrotherapy (TCT) in stress related illness" Pharmacologist 16,2 264 1974
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